Introduction to Rendlesham Forest
Rendlesham Forest is located in Eastern England near the Royal Air Force Base at Woodbridge, Suffolk. Nearby is another RAF base – Bentwaters. The two bases are separated by a small strip of woods called Rendlesham Forrest. Both bases are renowned for their unusual military activities and top secret research – mustard gas was tested near these bases during the earlier World Wars. Top secret radar experiments (code named Cobra Mist) were conducted here too. Both bases, known as the “twin bases”, are leased to United States military.
On the night of December 26, 1980, a Soviet satellite was schedule to crash into the atmosphere and burn up on entry. Two days later, December 28, 1980, another Soviet military satellite was to break up upon entry.
The stage was set for unusual activity in the skies…
The Rendlesham Forest sighting
On December 26, 1980 at approximately 3:00 AM (the original report incorrectly states December 27), two United States Air Force security patrolmen noticed unusual lights outside the back gate of the base. Thinking that an aircraft had crashed, they requested to leave the base to investigate. The on-duty flight chief granted permission and sent three patrolmen to investigate – Sergeant Jim Penniston, Airman Ed Cabansag, and airman John Burroughs. The three men drove down a logging path and then bounded out of their vehicles to continue the investigation on foot. Ahead of them, in the thick forest woods, were blinding bright lights, blinking, flickering, and sparking.
As they approached the lights, the men noted that the static in the air was unusually high. Their hair standing on end, they drew near to the lights and realized that an object “the size of a tank” was located within the glow. They noted that the surface of the object looked like black glass. When the object emitted a large burst of light, the men dove to the ground seeking cover. As the men recalled, “in the blink of an eye” the object “was gone like a blur” towards the coast.
The men jumped into their vehicle and began pursuing another light that they quickly realized was only the pulsing light from the Oxford Ness lighthouse located on the coast seven miles away. This prompted skeptics to suspect that the object in question was nothing more than the light from the lighthouse although all three men argue that this could not possibly be the case since the object/light they first investigated was clearly seen in the woods at close range.
In written reports and detailed sketches, the men described the sighting in more detail – the metallic object was triangular in shape about 6 feet tall and 15 feet wide. It illuminated the entire forest with white light. There was a red, pulsating light on top and rows of blue lights underneath. It stood on three legs and hovered briefly.
The men returned to the base and reported their findings to the supervisors. At 10:30 AM that next morning, military police were summoned back to the woods to search for physical evidence where they found and photographed three depressions, each 1 1/2 inches deep and 7 inches across. After viewing the physical evidence, skeptics asserted that the depressions were nothing more than rabbit burrows. This was immediately discounted by investigators who noted that each of the three depressions were located in a triangular pattern and were exactly 12 feet from each other. Understanding that nature doesn’t work on such an accurate mathematical basis, the skeptics withdrew their initial assessment.
The Rendlesham Forest area was measured for radiation and researchers noted that readings were slightly higher than the norm. They also took readings on trees that faced the landing area and noted that these readings were up to five-times higher than what would normally be expected.
The second Rendlesham Forest sighting
The following day, just after midnight on December 28, 1980, the next sighting occurred. Col Charles I. Halt continued the investigation and documented the details of the second sighting in his report.
Later in the night a red sun-like light was seen though the trees. It moved about and pulsed. At one point it appeared to throw off glowing particles and then broke into five separate white objects and then disappeared. Immediately thereafter, three star-like objects were noticed in the sky, two objects to the north and one to the south, all of which were about 10 degrees off the horizon. The objects moved rapidly in sharp angular movements and displayed red, green and blue lights. The objects to the north appeared to be elliptical through an 8-12 power lens. They then turned to full circles. The objects to the north remained in the sky for an hour or more. The object to the south was visible for two or three hours and beamed down a stream of light from time to time.
Considered one of the greatest pieces of UFO evidence to date, Halt recorded audio of the second sighting on a small tape recorder. The total recording lasts 18 minutes and was released to the public by a United States Major who had held the recording for four years. The recording shows us that at precisely 1:48 AM on December 28, the second instance of strange activity began. The recording demonstrates the servicemen’s excitement:
Halt: You just saw a light? Where? Slow down…where? We are about 150 to 200 yards from the site. Everything else is just deathly calm. There’s no doubt about it, there’s some type of strange flashing red light ahead. Weird! … it appears to be moving a little bit this way…It’s brighter than it has been. It’s definitely coming this way…Pieces of it are shooting off…There’s no doubt about it this is weird.
Halt: Now we’ve got an object about 10 degrees directly south, 10 degrees off the horizon. And the ones to the north are moving. One’s moving away from us.
Airman: Moving out fast. This one on the right’s heading away, too.
Halt: They’re both heading north. Hey, here he comes from the south, he’s coming toward us now.
Halt (In clearly stunned tones): Now we observe what appears to be a beam coming down towards the ground…this is unreal.
About 30 minutes later…
One object still hovering over Woodbridge base at about five to ten degrees off the horizon, still moving erratic and similar lights and beaming down as earlier.
The beam of light mentioned in the recording was later described in more detail by Halt. Halt indicated that the beam of light struck the ground near the men and also hit the ground in the area of the weapons storage area near the base. It was later discovered that this storage area, unbeknownst to anyone but some selected military personnel, contained nuclear weapons. The light was uniform in width and made a large splash of light where it contacted the ground. When the light disappeared it shut off very suddenly “as if controlled by a switch”.
Non-military witnesses report lights in the sky
Suffolk police confirmed that UFO reports from area residents poured in during the nights surrounding the incident. Heathrow Airport in London reported strange diversions on their radars. Some attributed these sightings to the entry of the Russian satellite mentioned earlier. Others take the non-military reports as further evidence supporting the military men’s claims.
The Webb family, who were returning from a party, drove through the forest during the time of the sightings. They reported seeing the same lights in the sky and even stopped their car to observe them.
Many reported seeing three glowing objects in the sky moving often in a tight, triangular shape but sometimes breaking away from each other at incredible speeds. All witnesses indicate that at the end of their sighting, the objects shot off into the sky at speeds so fast they seemed to disappear in the blink of an eye.
Skeptics pay particular attention to the lighthouse located seven miles from the base. The light from the lighthouse did indeed confuse the men during the first sighting and some point out discrepancies in the direction the lights were seen. Some skeptics even claim the direction the lights were seen lie directly in the path of the lighthouse (over the roof of a nearby farmhouse). Additionally, skeptics note that often the descriptions given by the military personnel describe the lights as “star like”. They point out that some witness reports seem to hint that the objects remained fairly stationary and gradually, during the course of several hours, appeared to drop lower towards the horizon. Skeptics note that this would obviously point to stars being seen and misidentified. They cannot however, offer any explanation for the pulsing lights nor the beams of light shooting to the ground.
Researchers have since discovered that the area around the bases has been a hotbed of UFO activity for decades. Residents have reported the surfacing of strange blisters all over their skin and reports of green fireballs rising from the nearby sea are abundant.
Charles Halt audio recording of the event
Rendlesham Forest audio – Part 1 of 2
Rendlesham Forest audio – Part 2 of 2
Transcript of the Col Charles Halt recording
HALT: 150 feet or more from the initial, or I should say suspected, impact point. Having a little difficulty; can’t get the Light-all to work. Seems to be some kind of mechanical problem. Gonna send back and get another Light-all. Meantime we’re gonna take some readings with the Geiger counter and chase around the area a little bit waiting for another Light-all to come back in.
Six… Sergeant Bustinza Security Control… that’s mark one of the pod… pod number…
HALT: OK, we’re now approaching the area within about 25, 30 feet. What kind of readings are we getting? Anything?
NEVELS: Just minor clicks.
HALT: Minor clicks.
HALT: Where are the impressions? Is that all the bigger they are?
ENGLUND: Well, there’s one more well-defined over here.
SECURITY COMMUNICATION: Sergeant Bustinza – Security Control.
HALT: We’re still getting clicks.
NEVELS: …getting clicks…
Sergeant Bustinza… We’re outta gas…Security-6 boarding…East Gate
HALT: Can you read that on the scale?
NEVELS: Yes, sir. We’re now on the five-tenths scale, and we’re reading about third, fourth make over…
HALT: OK, we’re still comfortably safe here.
RADOP: Do you happen to have a Light-all?
East Gate security… Security Six… have a light-all with gas…please.
HALT: Still minor readings, the second pod indentation…
HALT: This one’s dead. Let’s go over to the third one over here.
[BACKGROUND COMMUNICATION]: Sergeant Bustinza…
NEVELS: Yes, now I’m getting some residual.
HALT: I can read it now. The meter’s definitely giving a little pulse.
ENGLUND: … about the center …
HALT: I was gonna say let’s go to the center of the area next and see what kind of a reading we get out there. You’re reading the clicks, I can’t hear the clicks. That about the center, Bruce?
HALT: OK, let’s go to the center.
NEVELS: Yes, I’m getting more…
HALT: That’s the best deflection of the needle I’ve seen yet. OK, can you give me an estimation. We’re on the point five scale…we’re getting…have trouble reading…
ENGLUND: At approximately 01.25 hours…
NEVELS: We’re getting right at a half of a millirem.
[Piano music bleed from previous recording on tape]
HALT: …best point. I don’t seen it go any higher.
VOICE (BALL?): It’s still flying around.
HALT: OK, we’ll go out toward the…
NEVELS: Now it’s picking up.
HALT: This is out toward the number one indentation where we first got the strongest reading. Yeah, it’s similar to what we got in the center.
NEVELS: …right in the pod, it’s right near the center.
ENGLUND: This looks like an area here possibly that could be a blast…it’s in the center of the triangle…
HALT: It’s hard to tell… Here take this, my fingers [are] about to freeze.
ENGLUND: …up towards seven…Just jumped up towards seven tenths.
HALT: Seven tenths? Right there in the center?
ENGLUND: Uh huh.
HALT: We found a small blast – what looks like a blasted or scruffed-up area here. We’re getting very positive readings. Let’s see, is that near the center?
ENGLUND: Yes, it is. This is what we would assume would be the dead center.
NEVELS: Picking up more as you go along – the whole area here now…
HALT: Up to seven tenths? Or seven units, let’s call it, on the point five scale. OK, why don’t we do this: why don’t we make a sweep – here, I’ve got my gloves on now – let’s make a sweep out around the whole area about ten foot out, make a perimeter run around it, starting right back here at the corner, back at the same first corner where we came in, let’s go right back here. I’m gonna have to depend on you counting the clicks.
HALT: OK, let’s…
NEVELS: I’ll tell you as it gets louder…
HALT: …then I can put the light on it and sweep around it.
HALT: Put it on the ground every once in a while.
ENGLUND: This looks like an abrasion on the tree…
HALT: OK, we’ll catch that on the way back, let’s go around. Move back. Hit it, then [there?].
ENGLUND: We’re getting interest right over here. It looks like an abrasion pointing into the center of the…
HALT: It is.
ENGLUND: …landing area.
HALT: It may be old, though – there’s some sap marks or something on it. Let’s go on back around. All right?
NEVELS: …give some extension on it…
HALT: Hey, this is an awkward thing to use isn’t it?
NEVELS (indistinct): …carry…about my ears, but this one broke…
HALT: Are we getting anything further? I’m going to shut the recorder off until we find something.
NEVELS: Picking up good.
HALT: Picking up? What are we up to? We’re up to two, three units deflection, you’re getting in close to one pod.
NEVELS: Picking up some here…picking up.
HALT: OK, it’s still not going above three or four units.
NEVELS: Picking up more, though – more frequent. Closer together.
HALT: Yes, you’re staying steady up around two to three to four units now.
ENGLUND: Colonel Halt?
ENGLUND: Each one of these trees that face into the blast, what we assume is the landing site, all have an abrasion facing in the same direction, towards the center, the same…
HALT: That’s interesting. Let’s go the rest of the way around the circle here. Turn it back down here.
NEVELS: Picking up some…
VOICE (ENGLUND?): …collection
HALT: Let me see that….that’s got a funny…that’s… You’re right about the abrasion. I’ve never seen a tree that’s er…
VOICE (indistinct): …small sap marks…
HALT: … never seen a pine tree that’s been damaged react that fast.
NEVELS: …you got a bottle to put that in.
HALT: You got a sample bottle?
HALT: Here, sit yourself down…
VOICE (BALL?): You’ll notice they’re all at the same height.
HALT: From now on, let’s identify that as point number one – that stake there. So you all know where it is if we have to sketch it. You got that, Sergeant Nevels?
VOICE: Closest to the Woodbridge…
HALT: Closest to the Woodbridge base…
VOICE: Be point one?
HALT: Be point one.
HATL: Let’s go clockwise from there.
VOICE: Point two…
HALT: Point two.
BALL: Go ahead, Ed
HALT: So this tree is between point two and point three.
SECURITY COMMUNICATION: “(indistinct) …Burroughs and two other personnel requesting to ride ‘em[?] on a jeep at your location”
BALL: Tell them negative at this time. We’ll tell them when they can come out here. We don’t want them out here right now.
HALT: The sample…you’re going to mark this sample number one…
NEVELS: Yes, sir.
HALT: Have them cut it off, and include some of that sap and all…is between indentation two and three on a pine tree about five feet away, about three and a half feet off the ground.
NEVELS (faint): Put it in here. I’ve got some more…
HALT: There’s a round abrasion on the tree about three and a half, four inches in diameter…it looks like it might be old, but, er…strange, there’s a crystalline…pine sap that has come out that fast. You say there was other trees here that are damaged in a similar fashion?
ENGLUND: Yes, all facing in toward the center of the landing site…
HALT: OK, why don’t you take a picture of that and remember your picture, we ain’t gonna be writing this down. Oh, it’s gonna be on the tape.
ENGLUND: You got a tape measure with you?
HALT: This is the picture, your first picture will be at the first tree, the one between mark two and three. Meantime I’m gonna look at a couple other of these trees over here.
NEVELS: We are getting some…
HALT: You’re getting readings on the tree you’re taking samples from on the side facing the suspected landing site.
ENGLUND: Four clicks max.
HALT: Up to four. Interesting. That’s right where you’re taking the sample now. Four? That’s the strongest point on the tree?
NEVELS: Yessir. And if you come to the back…there’s no clicks whatsoever.
HALT: No clicks at all on the back – it’s all on the…
NEVELS: …maybe one or two…
HALT: …side facing the…interesting. The indentations look like something twisted as it dropped… you know, as it sat down on them. Looks like someone took something and sat it down and twisted it from side to side. Very strange.
HALT: We’re looking at the same tree we took the sample off with this – what d’you call it – Starscope?
ENGLUND: Uh huh, starlight scope.
HALT: And you’re getting…getting a definite heat reflection off the tree about, what, three to four feet off the ground?
ENGLUND: Yes, where the spot is…
HALT: Same place where the spot is, we’re getting a heat…
BALL: …and a spot on the tree directly behind us I picked up the same thing, and one off to your right.
ENGLUND: All right, let me…
HALT: Three trees in the area, immediately adjacent to the site, within ten feet of the suspected landing site, we’re picking up heat reflection off the trees.
ENGLUND: Gimme light, Bob.
HALT: What’s that again?
ENGLUND: Shine the light on it again, Bob. [Bobby Ball]
HALT: What, are you having trouble…(indistinct)
ENGLUND: (indistinct)…right on the spot, and then when you want…
HALT: OK, turn the light off.
ENGLUND: …you’ll notice the white….
HALT: Hey! You’re right. There is a white streak on the tree.
ENGLUND: Indicates a heat…
HALT: Let me turn around and look at this tree over here now. Just a second – watch, ‘cos you’re right in front of the tree. I can see it. OK, give me a little side lighting so I can find the tree. OK. Ah…
SECURITY COMMUNICATION: Alpha Two, security.
HALT: Now I’ve lost the tree. OK. Stop, stop. Light off! Hey this is eerie.
VOICE (BALL?): Why don’t you do the pod spots and then the center?
HALT: This is strange. Here, someone wanna look at the spots on the ground? Whoops, watch you don’t step…you’re walking all over ‘em.
HALT: OK, let’s step back and not walk all over ‘em. Come back here and somebody put a beam on ‘em. You’re gonna have to be back ten or fifteen feet. You see it?
VOICE (BALL?): OK, fine.
HALT: OK, lights off.
he took this long to document…
HALT: What d’you think about the spot? [LONG PAUSE] Nothing[?] at the first spot? OK, that’s what we’d call spot number three. Let’s go to the back corner and get spot number one. Spot number one, here’s spot number one right here. Spot number one, right here. D’you need some light? There it is, right there. Focused?
VOICE (BALL?): Focused.
HALT: OK. Looking now at spot number one through the Starlight scope.
BALL(?): Picking up a slight increase in light as I go over it.
HALT: Slight increase in light at spot number one. Let’s go look at spot number two. Spot number two’s right over here. Right here – see it? OK, get focused on it. Tell me when. OK, lights off, let’s see what we get on it.
BALL(?): Slight increase.
HALT: Just a slight increase?
BALL(?): Try the center.
HALT: The center spot…well it really isn’t the center, it’s slightly off center. It’s right there.
BALL(?): Right here.
ENGLUND(?): Let’s mark that as the center…
HALT: OK. We’re gonna get your reading on it right there.
VOICE (BALL?): OK.
HALT: Tell me when you’re ready.
HALT: OK, lights out. It’s the center spot we’re looking at now, or almost the center.
BALL(?): Slight increase.
HALT: Slight increase there? This is slightly off center toward the one–two side. It’s some type of an abrasion or something in the ground where the pine needles are all pushed back where we get a high radioactive reading… er, a high reading, about, er… deflection of, er, two to three, maybe four, depending on the point of it.
BALL(?): Someone wanna check it?
HALT: You say there is a positive after-effect?
ENGLUND: Yes, there is, definitely. That’s on the center spot. There is an after-effect.
NEVELS: What does that mean?
ENGLUND: It means that when the lights are turned off, once we are focused in and allow time for the eyes to adjust we are getting an indication of a heat source coming out of that center spot, as er, which will show up on…
HALT: Heat or some form of energy. It’s hardly heat at this stage of the game.
HALT: Looking directly overhead one can see an opening in the trees, plus some freshly broken pine branches on the ground underneath. Looks like some of ‘em came off about 15 to 20 feet up. Some small branches about an inch or less in diameter.
HALT: 01.48. We’re hearing very strange sounds out of the farmer’s barnyard animals.
ENGLUND: (Indistinct – sounds like “28…7”)
HALT: They’re very, very active, making an awful lot of noise.
ENGLUND: (indistinct – possibly “wasn’t a”) …pigmentation.
HALT: You just saw a light? Where? Wait a minute. Slow down. Where?
ENGLUND: Right on this position here. Straight ahead, in between the trees – there it is again. Watch – straight ahead, off my flashlight there, sir. There it is.
HALT: I see it, too. What is it?
ENGLUND: We don’t know, sir.
NEVELS: Can I get some of those…(?)
HALT: It’s a strange, small red light, looks to be maybe a quarter to a half mile, maybe further out. I’m gonna switch off.
HALT: The light is gone now. It was approximately 120 degrees from the site…
ENGLUND: It’s back again.
HALT: Is it back again?
ENGLUND: Yes, sir.
HALT: Well douse flashlights then. Let’s go back to the edge of the clearing so we can get a better look at it. See if you can get the Starscope on it. The light’s still there and all the barnyard animals have gone quiet now. We’re heading about 110, 120 degrees from the site out through to the clearing now, still getting a reading on the meter, about two clicks.
HALT: Needle’s jumped, three to four clicks, getting stronger.
ENGLUND: Now it’s stopped… Now it’s coming up… Hold on. There we go… about approximately four foot off the ground, at a compass heading of 110 degrees.
HALT: He’s turned the meter off. Gotta say that again. About four feet off the ground, about 110 degrees, getting a reading of about four clicks?
ENGLUND: Yes, sir. (Sneezes). Now it’s dying.
HALT: Now it’s dying. I think it’s something other than the ground. I think it’s something that’s…something variable[?]…
ENGLUND: (indistinct)…tree right over…
HALT: We’ve just bumped into the first night bird we’ve seen. We’re about 150 or 200 yards from the site.
VOICE (faintly): Another one[?]
HALT: Everything else is just deathly calm.
HALT: There is no doubt about it – there’s some type of strange flashing red light ahead.
ENGLUND: Sir, it’s yellow.
HALT: I saw a yellow tinge in it, too. Weird! It appears to be maybe moving a little bit this way? It’s brighter than it has been.
HALT: It’s coming this way. It is definitely coming this way.
VOICE: Pieces of it shooting off…
HALT: Pieces of it are shooting off.
VOICE: At eleven o’clock…
HALT: There is no doubt about it. This is weird!
VOICE (NEVELS?): To the left…
HALT: Definitely moving…
VOICE (NEVELS?): Two lights – one light just behind [?] and one light to the left.
HALT: Keep your flashlights off. There’s something very, very strange. Get the headset on, see if it gets any stronger.
NEVELS: I have.
HALT: OK. Give us your…
NEVELS: …make a notation that this is on a beta reading, too…
HALT: It’s on a beta reading?
NEVELS: The beta shield has been removed.
HALT: OK. Pieces are falling off it again.
ENGLUND: Sir, it just moved to the right…
ENGLUND: …off to the right.
HALT: Strange! One again left[?] Let’s approach to the edge of the woods up there. Do you wanna do it without lights? Let’s do it carefully. Come on.
HALT: OK, we’re looking at the thing, we’re probably about two to three hundred yards away. It looks like an eye winking at you. Still moving from side to side. And when you put the Starscope on it, it sort of has a hollow center, a dark center, it’s…
ENGLUND(?): Like a pupil…
HALT: Yeah, like a pupil of an eye looking at you, winking. And the flash is so bright to the Starscope that it almost burns your eye.
[Garbled security communication]
HALT: We’ve passed the farmer’s house and are crossing the next field and now we have multiple sightings of up to five lights with a similar shape and all but they seem to be steady now rather than a pulsating or glow with a red flash.
HALT: We’ve just crossed a creek…
VOICE: Here we go…
HALT: …and we’re getting what kind of readings now?
HALT: We’re getting three good clicks on the meter and we’re seeing strange lights in the sky.
HALT: 2:44. We’re at the far side of the farmer’s…the second farmer’s field and made sighting again about 110 degrees. This looks like it’s clear off to the coast. It’s right on the horizon. Moves about a bit and flashes from time to time. Still steady or red in color. Also after negative readings in the center of the field we’re picking up slight readings, four or five clicks now, on the meter.
HALT: 3:05. We see strange strobe-like flashes to the… rather sporadic, but there’s definitely something there. Some kind of phenomenon.
HALT: 3:05. At about ten degrees, horizon, directly north, we’ve got two strange objects, er, half moon shape, dancing about, with colored lights on ‘em. At, er, guess to be about five to ten miles out, maybe less. The half moons have now turned into full circles as though there was an eclipse or something there for a minute or two.
HALT: 03:15. Now we’ve got an object about 10 degrees directly south, 10 degrees off the horizon.
NEVELS: … to the left…
HALT: And the ones to the north are moving. One’s moving away from us.
NEVELS: Moving out fast.
BALL(?): This one on the right’s heading away, too.
HALT: They’re both heading north. Hey, here he comes from the south, he’s coming toward us now.
HALT: Now we’re observing what appears to be a beam coming down to the ground.
SHOUT IN BACKGROUND: Colors! [?]
HALT: This is unreal. [Laughs]
HALT: 03:30 and the objects are still in the sky, although the one to the south looks like it’s losing a little bit of altitude. We’re turning around and heading back toward the base.
HALT: The object to the south is still beaming down lights to the ground.
HALT: 04:00 hours. One object still hovering over Woodbridge base at about five to ten degrees off the horizon, still moving erratic and similar lights and beaming down as earlier.
Duration of tape: 18 minutes 12 seconds
Department of the Air Force – Unexplained Lights report filed by Charles Halt
Charles Halt Affidavit – 2010
In June 2010, retired Colonel Charles Halt signed a notarized affidavit, in which he again summarized what had happened, then stated he believed the event to be extraterrestrial and it had been covered up by both the US and UK:
“I believe the objects that I saw at close quarter were extraterrestrial in origin and that the security services of both the United States and the United Kingdom have attempted—both then and now—to subvert the significance of what occurred at Rendlesham Forest and RAF Bentwaters by the use of well-practiced methods of disinformation.”
Halt also dismissed claims that he and his men had confused a UFO with a lighthouse beam:
“While in Rendlesham Forest, our security team observed a light that looked like a large eye, red in color, moving through the trees. After a few minutes this object began dripping something that looked like molten metal. A short while later it broke into several smaller, white-colored objects which flew away in all directions. Claims by skeptics that this was merely a sweeping beam from a distant lighthouse are unfounded; we could see the unknown light and the lighthouse simultaneously. The latter was 35 to 40-degrees off where all of this was happening.”
In an interview, Halt’s superior officer, Col Ted Conrad, criticized Halt for the claims in his affidavit, saying “he should be ashamed and embarrassed by his allegation that his country and England both conspired to deceive their citizens over this issue. He knows better.” Conrad also acknowledged the events remained unexplained.